Environmentally friendly methods for controlling pine pitch canker
J. Martín‐García, R. Zas, A. Solla,
S. Woodward, J. Hantula, E. J. Vainio, M. Mullett, C. Morales‐Rodríguez,
A. Vannini, P. Martínez‐Álvarez, G. Pinto, A. Alves, J. Amaral, M. J.
Wingfield, G. Fourie, E. T. Steenkamp, R. Ahumada, B. Šerá, A. V.
Sanz‐Ros, R. Raposo, M. Elvira‐Recuenco, E. Iturritxa, T. R. Gordon, J.
Fusarium circinatum is a
highly virulent invasive pathogen that causes the disease commonly known
as pine pitch canker (PPC). On mature trees, the most common symptoms
of PPC include resin bleeding, resinous cankers, wilting of needles and
dieback. In nurseries the main symptoms are yellowish needles, and
wilting of foliage and shoots. PPC is considered one of the most
important diseases of conifers globally and at least 60 species of Pinus along with Pseudotsuga menziesii are
known to be susceptible. Quarantine regulations are crucial to minimize
the risk of new introductions into disease‐free countries. However, if
these measures fail, implementation of environmentally friendly control
methods is currently encouraged in an integrated management approach
that minimizes the use of chemicals in forests. This review therefore
summarizes current knowledge of biological control using endophytic
fungi, bacteria and viruses, and other environmentally friendly methods
to control PPC, including thermotherapy, natural products with
fungicidal effects, promoters of innate host resistance mechanisms and
breeding for resistance. Key research gaps to be addressed for
improvement of effective management of this disease are discussed.
Source: Wiley online Library